OSCE-Bucharest Conference.2010






The Bucharest Conference on OSCE 2010 has concluded,  but his reverberation will be long lasting . The participants at this event has witnessed history in making as the Bucharest Conference was the only conference realized on an European Union country , was the only conference on OSCE that enjoyed a three president`s participation : a message from President Nursultan Nazarbaev of Kazakhstan , and key note speeches from President Emil Constantinescu of Romania and President Ion Iliescu of Romania and finally it was the conference that give a strong support to President Nursultan Nazarbaev  plans to reform OSCE.  

The Bucharest Conference on OSCE in 2010 was from the beginning planned as a response from civil society , foreign policy experts and key European political figures to plans of reform launched by Kazakhstan Chairmanship of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe . The Bucharest Conference held on 24 February under the high patronage of Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation  , Kazakhstan Diplomatic Mission in Romania and European Council on International Relations was a response of European structure to the key proposal launched by President Nursultan Nazarbaev in his Vienna speech calling for a global European response to OSCE crisis. The Bucharest Conference on OSCE was a clear signal that OSCE is regarded as a powerful actor with a long history and a potential  determinant future role in world affairs . All the speakers underlined there support for President Nazarbaev  views that : “OSCE is an organization that cannot be replaced. Its stagnation or disappearance would create a volatile vacuum in the Euro-Atlantic area”. Former Romanian President Emil Constantinescu stressed that :”The great contribution of OSCE to the security  architecture of Europe  and the world will have being the wars that never took place  because OSCE created the democratic and dialogue mechanisms ,preventive diplomacy and cooperation with civil society. “

While Former President Ion Iliescu of Romania emphasized on the OSCE necessity in carving a new economic reality after the collapse of communism and the capitalism crisis .The globalization process itself is under scrutiny and OSCE is determinant in building a new world model of integration with respect to nations and with support for poor nations . The Bucharest Conference was declared as the place where “everybody who is anybody“in foreign policy debate could express his views on OSCE future, a wealth of fundamental reports varying from OSCE and human security, OSCE at crossroads, OSCE and the economic crisis solution, OSCE and the environment gave a clear assessment of today`s reality of the organization and of the future role of OSCE.

Concluding,  the Conference on OSCE 2010. A decisive year for Europe . Kazakhstan Presidency was a clear success fulfilling his role as a large, European and representative forum on debate on the future of OSCE . The academic and intellectual response of Europe was an energetic support for Kazakhstan vision on reforming the OSCE. Now that the Bucharest conference has concluded and Europe give an academic support to OSCE reform is the time of decisive action`s in a decisive year for Europe . 2010. Kazakhstan Presidency . 

The Conference on OSCE 2010 presidium : Professor Anton Caragea , director IRICE , Professor Ioan Cezar Coraci , UGIR 1903 President, H.E. President Ion Iliescu , H.E. President Emil Constantinescu , H.E. Kairat Aman Chief of Diplomatic Mission of Kazakhstan , Mr. Catalin Nechifor vice-president of Romania- Kazakhstan Parliamentary Friendship Group 

Professor Anton Caragea speaking at OSCE 2010 Conference

H.E.President Ion Iliescu speaking on OSCE 2010 Conference

H.E.President Emil Constantinescu receives the Title of Honorary Speaker of OSCE 2010 Conference

H.E.President Ion Iliescu receives the Honorary Speaker Title from Professor Anton Caragea

H.E.Kairat Aman ,Chief of Diplomatic Mission of Kazakhstan speaking at OSCE 2010 Conference

H.E.President Emil Constantinescu receives the Kazakhstan Plate from H.E. Kairat Aman, Chief of Diplomatic Mission of Kazakhstan

H.E. President Ion Iliescu receives the Golden medall of UGIR 1903

H.E.President Emil Constantinescu receives the Golden medall of UGIR from Mr. Ioan Cezar Coraci , UGIR 1903 President

H.E. Kairat Aman receives the Romanian Medal of Honor for Diplomatic Activity


 The huge OSCE cake





Misiunea Diplomatica a Republicii Kazahstan      Institutul de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica

au placerea de a va invita la





                                                     Conferinta va avea loc  24 februarie 2010


Accesul se face doar pe baza de invitatie nominala






Diplomatic Mission of Republic of Kazakhstan   Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation

have the pleasure to invite you at





                                                        The conference will be held on 24 February 2010


 Acces will be granted only to holders of official invitation



Program of the Conference



10:30 – 11:00 – Receiving the participant`s at Conference. Welcoming Committee

            11:00 – Beginning of the Conference

Opening speech by professor Anton Caragea, director of Institute of International Relations and Economic Cooperation: OSCE AT CROSS ROADS     

Opening speech by H.E. Kairat Aman , Chief of Diplomatic Mission of Republic of Kazakhstan in Romania : KAZAKHSTAN CHAIRMANSHIP OF OSCE

 Video- address by H.E. President of Republic of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbaev on ASSUMPTION OF KAZAKHSTAN TO OSCE CHAIRMANSHIP   

Key-note speech of H.E. Emil Constantinescu , former president of Romania on


Key note speech of H.E. Ion Iliescu , former president of Romania on OSCE IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE WORLD ECONOMY GLOBALIZATION

Video-address of H.E. Minister of Foreign Affairs of Republic of Kazakhstan , Chairman In Office of OSCE , Kanat Saudabayev  on KAZAKHSTAN  PRIORITES AT OSCE

Key-note speech of Mr. Ioan Cezar Coraci , president of Union of General Industrialist from Romania ( UGIR-1903 ) on ECONOMIC COOPERATION UNDER THE FRAMEWORK OF OSCE. A CHANCE FOR WORLD ECONOMY RECOVERY.

Key-note speech of Mr. Catalin Ioan Nechifor , member of Romanian Parliament ,vice-president of Romanian-Kazakhstan Parliamentary Friendship Group on A NEW CHALLENGE FOR OSCE : ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENT DIMENSION . 2010- A NEW BEGINNING  

Key-note speech of professor dr. Mircea Constantinescu ( co-authored professor Alexandru Lucinescu ) on ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE AND HUMAN SECURITY

Closing ceremony. Thanking speech by Professor Anton Caragea and H.E. Kairat Aman .

Cocktail. Breaking the cake.                                   




Programul conferintei



10:30-11:00 - Primirea participantilor la Conferinta. Comitet de intampinare.

           11:00 – Inceperea lucrarilor conferintei

Cuvant de deschidere a lucrarilor , prof.dr. Anton Caragea , directorul Institutului de Relatii Internationale si Cooperare Economica : OSCE LA RASCRUCE DE DRUMURI .

Cuvant de deschidere adresat de Excelenta sa Kairat Aman , Seful Misiunii Diplomatice a Republicii Kazahstan in Romania : KAZAHSTANUL LA PRESEDINTIA OSCE

Video-discurs al Excelentei Sale Presedintele Republicii Kazahstan , Nursultan Nazarbaev : DESCHIDEREA PRESEDINTIEI REPUBLICII KAZAHSTAN LA OSCE

Discurs principal al Excelentei Sale Emil Constantinescu , fost presedinte al Romaniei asupra:  MAI E NEVOIE DE OSCE ? PENTRU CE ? PENTRU CINE ?

Discurs principal al Excelentei Sale Ion Iliescu , fost presedinte al Romaniei asupra : OSCE IN CONTEXTUL GLOBALIZARII ECONOMIEI MONDIALE

Video-discurs al Excelentei Sale Kanat Saudabayev , Ministrul Afacerilor Externe al Republicii Kazahstan si Presedinte in office al OSCE : PRIORITATILE PRESEDINTIEI KAZAHSTAN IN CADRUL OSCE .

Discurs principal al prof.dr. Ioan Cezar Coraci, presedinte al Uniunii Generale a Industriasilor din Romania -1903 ( UGIR-1903) asupra: COOPERARII ECONOMICE IN CONTEXTUL OSCE. O SANSA PENTRU DEPASIREA CRIZEI ECONOMICE MONDIALE

Discurs principal al dl. Ioan Catalin Nechifor , deputat, vice-presedinte al grupului Parlamentar de Prietenie Romania- Kazahstan asupra : O NOUA PROVOCARE PENTRU  OSCE. DIMENSIUNEA ECONOMICA SI DE MEDIU. 2010 - UN NOU INCEPUT.

Discurs al prof.dr. Mircea Constantinescu (co-autor prof . Alexandru Lucinescu) asupra: ORGANIZATIEI PENTRU SECURITATE SI COOPERARE IN EUROPA SI SECURITATEA UMANA

Ceremonia de inchidere a lucrarilor conferintei. Discursurile de multumire adresate de prof.dr. Anton Caragea si Excelenta Sa Kairat Aman.





    Text of the Address by H.E. President         Nursultan    Nazarbayev  on   the occasion of Kazakhstan’s assumption of the                 Chairmanship of the OSCE, January 14, 2010

Your excellencies,
Ladies and gentlemen,

Kazakhstan is assuming the extremely important mission of the Chairmanship of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) with a sense of great responsibility.

Our country will embark on its Chairmanship during one of the most complicated periods in modern history.

Because of the global financial and economic crisis, tectonic shifts are taking place in the global order, and this process is still far from completion.

The erosion of the regime of non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, terrorism, humanitarian and ecological disasters, famine, poverty, epidemics, depletion of energy resources, conflicts based on interethnic and interreligious differences—such is a far from complete list of the challenges faced by modern civilization that call for maximum efforts by multilateral institutions of high standing like the OSCE.

There is no doubt that the current world situation makes even more arduous the test which Kazakhstan, as a country chairing the OSCE, will have to pass. However, the most pressing problems that the OSCE is now facing have always been at the heart of our foreign policy.

Since its independence, Kazakhstan has made a real contribution to strengthening regional and global security. The shutdown of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, the voluntary renunciation of the world’s fourth largest nuclear and missile arsenal and the complete elimination of its infrastructure are historic decisions that our country has taken.

Recently, at Kazakhstan’s initiative, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution proclaiming the 29th of August the International Day against Nuclear Tests.

Kazakhstan is fully aware of its role as a responsible player in regional and global economic processes. As a country exporting increasing volumes of hydrocarbons to the world market, our country makes a significant contribution to ensuring global energy security, including that of the European countries.

As a major exporter of grain and other foodstuffs, Kazakhstan is actively promoting the implementation of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in order to end hunger and ensure food security.

The Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA), convened at Kazakhstan’s initiative, has now become a unique multilateral instrument for Asian security and co-operation.

Today, this forum, which is an OSCE analogue for Asia, brings together countries which account for one third of the world’s GDP, with a total population of approximately three billion people.

The top priority for Kazakhstan is the sustainable development of Central Asia. The growth of our economy positively affects the region as a whole.

Together with other OSCE participating States, Kazakhstan fully supports efforts aimed at bringing the East and West together in order to develop a better understanding of the key issues confronting the modern world.

The multiethnic and multireligious composition of our population is a special trait of our country. Representatives of more than 140 nationalities and 40 confessions live together as one big family in Kazakhstan.
Our model of interethnic and interreligious accord is Kazakhstan’s real contribution to the global process of interaction between different religions. At my initiative, since 2003, Astana has hosted three Congresses of Leaders of World and Traditional Religions, which have created a unique forum for interfaith dialogue.

Ladies and gentlemen,

Against this background, we consider the OSCE, with its unique geographical coverage, its experience of interaction and the instruments it has developed, to be one of the key mechanisms for ensuring international security and co-operation. It is an organization that has played and continues to play an important role in maintaining the security architecture in the area from Vancouver to Vladivostok.

At the same time, the positive historical resources of the OSCE are limited. Today, it is not permissible to carry on endlessly drawing the so-called “red lines” and playing the “zero-sum games” which have diminished its credibility.

Improving the effectiveness of international organizations in meeting new global challenges has come to the fore. That is the precise task of the OSCE, which is a unique platform for dialogue bringing together 56 States located on three continents.

The decisive question for the OSCE in the future will be whether it can convert itself into a structure that recognizes the diversity of the world in the 21st century, or whether it will continue to be an organization segmented into blocs, where the West remains aloof from the space “east of Vienna”?

Stereotypes of the “former Soviet republics” continue to dominate the minds of some of our OSCE partners despite the fact of our almost 20 years of experience of integration into the global democratic community.

In this context, the trust bestowed on us by the OSCE participating States bears a special importance for Kazakhstan. Building a democratic society has been a conscious choice of our people, and we will pursue further political liberalization of our country and seek to improve the quality of life of the people of Kazakhstan. Our OSCE Chairmanship is looked upon in the country not only as a foreign policy success, but also as a valuable national achievement in its own right.

In accordance with OSCE traditions, we hereby wish to declare the motto of our Chairmanship, reflecting the symbolic identification of Kazakhstan as the chairing nation.

The motto of Kazakhstan’s Chairmanship will be four Ts, namely, "Trust", “Tradition”, “Transparency” and “Tolerance”. The first T refers to the trust that is necessary for all of us. The second one refers to our commitment to the fundamental principles and values of the OSCE. The third one conveys maximum openness and transparency in international relations, free from “double standards” and “dividing lines”, as well as a focus on constructive co-operation in order to address challenges and threats to security.

Finally, the fourth T reflects global trends towards a strengthening of intercultural and intercivilizational dialogue, which is gaining major importance in today’s world.

Kazakhstan considers expanding and strengthening the consensus base on fundamental issues of development to be one of the key tasks for the OSCE. The 10-year interval since the last OSCE summit is an illustration of the fact that the consensus base is in stagnation, if not in crisis. In this regard, we call upon the OSCE participating States to support Kazakhstan’s initiative urging the convening of a summit in 2010.

Such a meeting of OSCE leaders would afford an opportunity to celebrate the 35th anniversary of the Helsinki Final Act, the 20th anniversary of the Charter of Paris and the 65th anniversary of the end of World War II.

The agenda of the summit could include topical security issues in the OSCE area of responsibility, as well as the situation in Afghanistan and issues relating to tolerance.

Now is the time when the leaders of the OSCE participating States should demonstrate their political will and focus on solutions to the difficult challenges facing our nations.

A summit would not only give a powerful impetus to adapting the OSCE to modern challenges and threats, but would also increase the confidence and respect enjoyed by the Organization itself among our peoples.

Finally, it is the direct responsibility of the Heads of State or Government to work towards strengthening security and co-operation for the benefit and prosperity of the people who elect them.

Meanwhile, the OSCE is an organization that cannot be replaced. Its stagnation or disappearance would create a volatile vacuum in the Euro-Atlantic area.

In this context, we suggest declaring August 1st, the day of the signing of the Helsinki Final Act, to be OSCE Day.
Kazakhstan will try to focus on achieving the optimum balance among all three OSCE “baskets”. Such an approach would make it possible to see problems in their entirety, and not only to effectively confront external manifestations of modern challenges and threats, but also to tackle their roots.

Kazakhstan as the holder of the OSCE Chairmanship is firmly committed to the fundamental principles and values of the OSCE. We intend to find mutually acceptable solutions in the interests of all the participating States of the Organization.

Kazakh folk wisdom says: “Birlik bolmay tirlik bolmas - Without unity, there can be no life.” Our country considers the OSCE in the 21st century as a single space of democracy, stability and prosperity for all the peoples living in it.

I thank you for your attention. I wish you every success in the New Year.






A decision of the Republic of Kazakhstan to assume OSCE chairmanship in 2010 was made at the OSCE Ministerial Council meeting held in Madrid in 29-30 November 2007.

The coming chairmanship has become a priority area of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy.

In compliance with the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan (№ 602, May 27, 2008) there were established an independent Permanent Mission to the OSCE in 2008.

In June 2008 at the Foreign Ministry of the Republic of Kazakhstan there were created a special department of OSCE matters which will become “OSCE Task Force” - a key structural part to designate OSCE Chairman-in-Office and his team and to coordinate work with all OSCE institutions and member-countries.

There has been conducted consultations with state bodies of Kazakhstan, has been learned OSCE countries’ opinions of different items of OSCE Agenda, has been forged relationships with think tanks in and abroad.

Previously in 2007 and 2008 on request of MFA to receive training diplomats and officials participated in internships at the OSCE, European training centers, and foreign ministries of nations that chaired the Organization. More than 80 people have completed training. They are MFA headquarters’ staff, diplomats of Permanent Mission to the OSCE in Vienna and officials from line agencies of the Republic of Kazakhstan, and also specialized experts from kazakhstani state bodies (The Administration of the President, Central Election Commission, Agency for Civil Service Affairs, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Internal Affairs, Ministry of Transport and Communications, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Ministry of Culture and Information, General Prosecutor’s Office).

Kazakhstan's personnel training effort is ongoing in 2009 (nearly 9 training courses have been planned for 80 diplomats). They are aimed at thoroughly study of separate directions, training courses for Kazakhstani “Task Force,” covering priority areas of OSCE operations, as well as team-building with the OSCE Secretariat, the ODIHR, other OCSE entities, and members of future Task Forces (Lithuania).

On February 13 the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan imposed its Decree (# 149) “On some issues of the work of the Kazakh Government within the Troika of OSCE and on the post of OSCE Chairman-in-Office”. In accordance with the Decree there planned an establishment of a multiagency commission and adoption of other measures for the support of interaction among the central state powers to implement special “Plan of action 2009-2011 within the Troika and on the post of OSCE Chairman-in-Office” (approved by above mentioned Decree) and other tasks of Chairmanship of Kazakhstan in OSCE.

One of the serious tasks is bolstering of the nation's representation in the Organization's structures. Nowadays five Kazakhstani citizens are working in OSCE institutions and missions. In 2009, there exist preconditions to promote additionally four people. Among the important there are officials from line agencies at the Secretariat and the ODIHR.

In January 2009, a citizen of Kazakhstan was appointed to the post of Acting chairman representative on combating intolerance and discrimination against Muslims (Hon. Adil Akhmetov, Deputy of the Senate of the Parliament of Kazakhstan). This fact is important in the context of long-term priority of strengthening intercultural concord, which promoted by the Head of State.

In August 2009, Kazakhstani diplomat Zh.Assanov was appointed Deputy Head of OSCE Office in Minsk.

Until the end of the year there expected to decide the appointment of special and personal representatives of Acting Chairman on different issues. According to the existing practice, mandates of some personal representatives appointed formerly will be prolonged, while other posts will need new appointments, primarily for Kazakhstani citizens.

Since January 1, 2009, Kazakhstan has been a member of OSCE's governing “Troika” and in this role on March 17; the country participated in the first joint meeting of OSCE and EU Troikas.

The meeting demonstrated high relevance of the OSCE-EU consulting mechanism, which will assume an even greater significance in 2010 when Kazakhstan, being a non-EU country, takes the chair.

As a Troika member, Kazakhstan has assumed the leadership of the Group for Cooperation with OSCE’s Mediterranean partners (Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Morocco, and Tunisia).

From October 1 2009, Kazakhstan assumed chairmanship in the Advisory Committee on Management and Finance. Kazakhstan, in its capacity of the would-be Chair, will become involved in the Organization's 2010 budgeting process well in advance to implement the following tasks:

·        finalize new contribution scales;

·        achieve closer linkage between annual budgeting and medium-term program planning.

For this reason, Kazakhstan involved to establishing program benchmarks in advance. This has come to be our “know-how,” on which OSCE fund managers have placed high value.

Starting the fall of 2009, Kazakhstan became a chair of the OSCE's Economic and Environmental Forum. In this context, the Forum's first event was held on 12-13 October 2009 in Astana. It is determined by calendar cycle in this dimension, which is traditionally “shifted” towards the beginning of the chairmanship.



Drawing out the priorities is a separate area of the preparatory work of Kazakhstan to the forthcoming Chairmanship.

Traditionally, each new chairmanship provides the continuity of work of the previous Chairman-in-Offices, sequence of realization of initiatives and tasks of the Troika, preservation and strengthening of principles and OSCE standards, as well as the observance of budgetary requirements and organizational planning.

At the same time, each chairmanship promotes national and regional interests, paying attention to their conformity to the OSCE general agenda.

Thereby, the priorities should be a flexible combination of national interests with the OSCE agenda and actual needs of the entire OSCE community.

We are speaking of those activity areas, where the OSCE has a corresponding experience, potential and perspectives for development, aimed at excluding the redoubling of other organizations’ activity.

Foreign policy agency of Kazakhstan conducts purposeful work on the elaboration of concrete priorities in each area of the OSCE activity. The priority is given to that spheres of activity of the Organization, the strengthening of which Kazakhstan may promote using its geopolitical position, social, economic, and political development, a foreign policy position.

Thereupon, it is quite logical that priorities of Kazakhstan will result from recognized achievements of Kazakhstan, such as the contribution to strengthening interethnic and inter-confessional tolerances, regional safety, non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, role of the country in the solution of problems of power and food safety. The outlined problems are equally topical for the majority of the OSCE state-participants.

The world community highly estimates the contribution of Astana into global and regional security, non-proliferation activities, normalization of situation in Afghanistan, combat against terrorism, counteraction to religious extremism, promotion of dialogue between civilizations, cultures and religions.

The country is characteristic of tolerance to the world cultural and civilization diversity, equal dialogue, respect to the interests of each other and mutual benefits, as well as to harmonious cooperation between human rights, security, and development. These qualities will become demanded assets of Kazakh diplomacy in the realization of powers of the OSCE political leader.

It is natural that the Kazakhstan’s Chairmanship will bring the attention of the OSCE member states to the solution of vital problems of Central Asian region.



One of the global topical questions (therefore, among the OSCE participants) in this sphere is counteraction to new challenges and threats (combat against terrorism and extremism, organized crime, drug trafficking, and other kinds of illegal trafficking). The efforts of Kazakhstan as the OSCE Chairman, along with activities of the outgoing and incoming chairmanships, will be aimed at stabilization of continuity. The OSCE stability, especially in the central Asian region, will objectively become the core subject of the above outline aspect.

During the Chairmanship Kazakhstan should make efforts to realize a thesis declaring the OSCE should play positive role in the process of post-conflict rehabilitation of Afghanistan, strengthening its borders on perimeter of central-Asian member states of the Organization, as well as assisting to the proper administration of state bodies. Stabilization and reconstruction of Afghanistan are becoming an indisputable strategic imperative and an unconditional field of consensus.

Combating different types of trafficking may put the aspect of counteraction to proliferation of dangerous materials and weapons of mass destruction in the rank of priority tasks. Namely, the fact is supported by the new initiatives of President Obama concerning nuclear security and the US intention to implement the decision made lately by the UN on the regional level. The agreements achieved between the presidents of the USA and Russia during the April G20 Summit on the elaboration of new treaty concerning contraction and restriction of strategic offensive arms instead of the SNF treaty may also give an extra sense and impulse to the work of Kazakhstan Chairmanship in the outlined field.

The mentioned aspect is of great importance for Kazakhstan, due to the incontestable contribution of the country and its leader to the disarmament process. Taking into account the OSCE activity and military-political priorities being outlined by the Troika Forum for security cooperation, rotation of which is exerted in accordance with quarterly schedule by the French alphabet, serious attention will be paid to the above-mentioned problem in the course of the Chairmanship. Kazakhstan will chair the FSC in the end of 2011.

Obviously, a conceptual issue of the future European security will be of paramount importance. In 2008, the Russian federation suggested elaborating the Treaty on European Security, which would become a legal obligatory document in the military-political area. However, a number of member states see the elaboration of the document of the kind in the spirit of wholesome and indivisible security. On the initiative of the Greek Chairmanship the first unofficial Ministerial meeting took place in June 2009 in Corfu, where it was decided to start the so-called “Corfu process” in order to achieve consensus concerning future European security based on the open, broad and longstanding discussions.

Kazakhstan, as an incoming Chairman, is one of the key constitutive parts of the work. It is Astana which is to take the main responsibility for realization of the initiative in 2010.



During the last few years, low efficiency of the OSCE activity in the above area is a matter of concern for all the Participating states.

In compliance with the acting regulations, Kazakhstan is starting chairing the 18th Economic and Environmental Forum (EEF) this year, which is a key event of the OSCE activity in the environmental sphere. One peculiar feature of the OSCE second “basket” calendar is its discordance with the chairmanship. The first preparatory Conference of the 18th EEF took place in October 2009 in Kazakhstan, the other three parts will take place in other OSCE member states in 2010.

Creating favorable political conditions for realization of transit and transport potential is one of the goals of economic agenda of Kazakhstan. However, it should be noted that cooperation in transport area is one of the key issues of Kazakhstan’s relations with EU, the member states of which form the majority of the OSCE participants. This fact promotes the development of integrated partnership of Kazakhstan with both structures, including those in the frameworks of the “Path to Europe” Program.

In connection with this, the Ministries and state bodies of Kazakhstan accommodated and submitted the draft subject of the 18th EEF for approval in Vienna, which is “Promotion of proper management in border crossing area, improving safety of land transport and facilitating international highroad and railway service in the OSCE region”.

The subject includes several sub-subjects, meant for combining the existing approaches and being of interest for the OSCE member states. They comprise the better way of administration at the border crossing area; harmonization of national legislative acts on combating corruption; illegal migration and terrorism, development of public-private partnership; facilitation of trade, customs procedures and international (Eurasian) transport; development of infrastructure, transport and trade flows; combating illegal human,  trafficking, arms and drug trafficking; container traffic safety; environmental security (transport of dangerous goods); introduction of new technologies.

The forum subject and sub-subjects are flexible and are exposed to continuous change. They take into consideration the provisions of the Address of the Head of state to the people of Kazakhstan for 2008 and 2009, as well of Transport Strategy of Kazakhstan for 2015, Almaty Program of the OSCE activity, the Decree of the Ministerial Council, adopted 11.06 in Brussels in 2006 and dealing with transport area, and other OSCE expert know-how.

In order to give an extra impulse for the second “basket” it is important to involve the OSCE experience in solving regional ecological problems, which have a global effect at the Aral Sea. From the beginning of the year Kazakhstan chares IFAS and is determined to activate its work. The problems of giving the IFAS status of the UN institution (starting from December 11, 2008 it has the status of the observer of the UN GA), as well as stabilization of charter bodies (the Executive Committee) are included in the agenda.



As one of multinational states of the world, having significant number of ethnic minorities, during difficult years of transformation of social pattern and changes of economic relations, Kazakhstan, unlike other post-soviet states, has managed to keep peace, stability, and accord in society.

Kazakhstan exerts a suspended state policy, reviving and developing national and cultural diversity, having created all necessary conditions meeting the requirements of ethnic minorities and harmonization of international relations, which was more than once positively emphasized by specialized international organizations, including the OSCE High Commissioner on ethnic minorities. Measures taken for ensuring civilian, political, economic, social, and cultural rights of ethnic minorities conform to the international standards and serve as an example for other states.

The Assembly of People of Kazakhstan, established by the Decree of the Head of State on 1 March 1995, plays an important role. Today the Assembly unites all national and cultural centers and is a real mechanism of presenting interests of ethnic minorities to the state bodies. In May 2007, there were introduced amendments into the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan concerning applying the proportional election model and quota allocation for APK deputies, thus transforming it from consultative and advisory institution into the constitutional one. Therefore, the ability of ethnic groups to declare their interests in the highest legislative body was provided, which conforms to the Article 31 of Copenhagen Meeting of the Conference on the Human Dimension of the CSCE.

In this regard the promotion of tolerance and intercultural dialogue in the OSCE area is a high priority task of Kazakhstan chairmanship.

Kazakhstan’s gained unique experience in enhancement of the regional security and stability, in socio-economic development, in promoting tolerance and intercultural harmony, could assist OSCE to significantly enrich its experience and vision about the diversity of the modern world and the various ways of building an open democratic society.

Kazakhstan intends to ensure the involvement of the three Personal Representatives of AC OSCE for religious tolerance in the implementation of Kazakhstan's initiatives.

By the initiative of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Kazakhstan representative Adil Akhmetov was appointed to the post of Acting chairman representative on combating discrimination against Muslims.

The possibility of holding a comprehensive conference on the fight against intolerance in all three key areas (anti-Semitism, against Christians and Muslims) in 2010 under the aegis of a Kazakhstan's chairmanship is being investigated.

The event could be devoted to review of the implementation of decisions of the OSCE Meeting on implementation of the commitments on tolerance and intercultural, interreligious and intercultural understanding development (Almaty, 12-13 of June 2006) and other meetings of the OSCE, as well become a follow-up of such foreign policy initiatives of Kazakhstan as a Congress of Leaders of World and Traditional Religions and the Ministerial Conference "Common World: progress through diversity".

Kazakhstan, has been taking chair in the Group on Cooperation with the OSCE Mediterranean Partners (Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Morocco, Tunisia) in 2009, also had chosen tolerance as the theme for the primary and secondary activities of the Group.

There have been repeatedly sounded in the press about the general contours of the priorities of Kazakhstan's chairmanship in the OSCE. However, as per tradition its official presentation will take place during the first meeting of the OSCE Permanent Council in January 2010.



Kazakhstan becomes the first country of the CIS and Central Asia, as well as the first country with a predominantly Muslim population, taking chairmanship of the Organization.

It should be noted that the year of the chairmanship of RK is a landmark for the OSCE – it is 35-year anniversary of the signing of the Helsinki Final Act, the 20-th anniversary of the Paris Charter for a New Europe, 65-th anniversary of the end of the Second World War.

These dates give a good reason for serious analysis of the today’s role of the OSCE and thinking about its future in the broader context of security and cooperation. Subject for enhancement of the OSCE efficiency remains in the focus of the member countries of the Organization.

Kazakhstan is interested in the OSCE. The presence of serious conflicts in the OSCE, which is now extremely difficult to replace as the organization, making a real contribution to the maintenance of security in the widest part of the Eurasian region and meaningful dialogue platform, was among the important objective factors of RK chairmanship bid.

Kazakhstan is a predictable, authoritative partner in the international arena, having vast resources of interaction with many states, including those, whose confrontation characterizes the current state of the OSCE. Kazakhstan participates in all regional structures of the Eurasian and the Caspian communities, while pursuing its own independent foreign policy, focused on national interests.

In its turn, the OSCE, being virtually the only pan-European organization, where Kazakhstan is a full-fledged member, has become a legitimate channel for broadcasting the national interests of Kazakhstan at the global level in international law, military-political, economic and humanitarian areas, in matters of international security.

In connection with the crisis, OSCE facing with, Chairmanship of Kazakhstan in the OSCE has an exceptional importance for it.

Kazakhstan will try to bring new impetus to the intention of the OSCE to respond to modern threats and challenges more dynamically and adequately.

Kazakhstan stands for the transformation of the OSCE activities in accordance with the interests of all its members and considers the forthcoming presidency as a good opportunity to give a "new breath" to the interaction of the participating countries of the Organization. This is not about setting unrealistic goals, breakthrough tasks or making any revolutionary changes. We are talking about ensuring positive dynamics in relations among states, in solving burning problems in the Organization area.

Activity of the Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) is traditionally in a special focus of the Acting Chairman.

Kazakhstan keep good contacts with the Bureau and its leadership, taking into account many of the recommendations being given by the Bureau on various issues relating to its competence.

Kazakhstan stands for the preservation and strengthening of the mandate of the ODIHR. In matters of this area it is important for us to maintain an attitude of "honest broker", as well as firm attitude on alignment of dialogue among all parties, basing on the principles enshrined in the mandate of the ODIHR.

There will be a task before Kazakhstan, as OSCE chairman, to promote a meaningful dialogue between the Parliamentary Assembly of the OSCE and ODIHR, above all, in matters of election observation.

We believe that Kazakhstan work in the OSCE Troika in 2009-2011 can help to overcome the crisis and to find mechanisms to resolve existing contradictions, which is of great importance for the future of the Organization.



By putting forward its candidacy for the presidency of the OSCE, Kazakhstan started from the need to promote recognition of the country outside of the Eurasian community, to make Kazakhstan articulated, meaningful part of the European space and of the continental processes.

One should not underestimate the fact that the status of the OSCE Chairman gives an opportunity for Kazakhstan’s specialists to work on probation in the corridors of European structures and to get acquainted with the pan-European experience of diplomacy, including the ability to dialectically combine national, regional and global interests.

Chairmanship of the OSCE would not only give a possibility to take a look at the “internal kitchen" of the Organization, but also to impact on personnel matters in a highly competitive environment. Today Kazakhstan is represented at the three positions in the fieldwork and in four in the Secretariat and OSCE institutions. As the Chairman we will try to increase Kazakhstan’s representation in the staff of this international organization.

Intensive negotiations, meetings and consultations will also accumulate experience in overcoming the negative effects of the global economic crisis in the countries of the OSCE for its flexible implementation in Kazakhstan.

A decision on Kazakhstan's chairmanship in OSCE in 2010 has prompted us to develop a special program "Path to Europe". It reflects broader interest of Kazakhstan in cooperation with European countries in the humanitarian field, energy, transport transit, technology transfer and education. We perceive the European type of modern society as a kind of value that should be considered in the further development of Kazakhstan's statehood.

The OSCE chairmanship is destined to have a strong patriotic impact on the country. One should realize the high international authority of Kazakhstan and of the President, which let the country chair the organization, embracing a huge territory from Vancouver to Vladivostok.

Except for political benefits, the OSCE Chairmanship is a unique opportunity to promote cultural and spiritual values not only of Kazakhstan and its people, but of the whole region.

In this respect, the OSCE Chairmanship is expected to display the creative potential of Kazakhstan to the European audience. The diversity of unique culture of Kazakhstan should become one of the powerful means aimed at creation and promotion of positive and prosperous image of the country, witnessing the high status and level of society development. In a society of the kind, a universal language of culture is available to anyone, regardless of nationality and beliefs.

During the chairmanship a number of concerts, exhibits of paintings, photos and other arts is going to be organized not only in the OSCE principal office in Vienna, but in the Warsaw, Berlin, Brussels, Hague and Prague offices as well.

All the above events will provide an opportunity for creating more effective conditions for extensive propaganda of national culture, as well as predetermine stabilization of mutually beneficial cultural and educational relations, getting the idea of tolerance and humanism over to the European audience.


                           Kazakhstan – OSCE relationships



Kazakhstan joined the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe on 30 January 1992. In the same year, on 8 July, it signed the Helsinki Final Act of the CSCE, and on 23 September the Charter of Paris for a New Europe.
During the first years of its independence, Kazakhstan needed the support of the world powers and authoritative international organizations, including the OSCE. At the same time, the world community was interested in the constructive foreign policy line followed by the young republic, which, as history willed it, had turned out to be the possessor of the fourth largest nuclear arsenal. Mindful of this, the country made a conscious choice in favour of balanced approaches in its foreign and domestic policies, in which a pivotal role was assigned to the strategy of multilateral partnership and liberalization of the economy and society.
The invitation extended by the leading Western countries to join the Organization was perceived in Kazakhstan as a step towards forming a new European security architecture based on equality and absence of dividing lines.
Having become a full member of the pan-European conference, Kazakhstan took an active part in the processes of its further development, including its conversion into an international organization. President Nursultan Nazarbayev of Kazakhstan participated in the OSCE Summits held in Helsinki (1992), Budapest (1994), Lisbon (1996) and Istanbul (1999). Each year, Kazakhstan is represented at the meetings of the OSCE Ministerial Council by its Foreign Minister.
Kazakh parliamentarians take an active part in the work of the Organization’s Parliamentary Assembly.
In 1994, as a result of the Budapest Summit, the Conference was converted into the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe in order to put it on a firmer institutional footing.
In 1995, Kazakhstan established its Permanent Mission to the International Organizations in Vienna, which ensured the country’s direct participation in the OSCE. Since 2008, in view of the forthcoming Chairmanship, there has been an independent Mission of Kazakhstan to the OSCE headed by Ambassador Kairat Abdrakhmanov.

In 1995, the OSCE established the regional Liaison Office in Central Asia in Tashkent. In 1999, the OSCE Centre in Almaty was opened. It was renamed the OSCE Centre in Astana in 2007. The Centre is now headed by Ambassador Alexandre Keltchewsky (France).

During the last few years, Kazakhstan has carried out a number of major OSCE activities, including:
Regional Central Asian conference on combating trafficking in human beings – a regional response (Astana, 18-19 May 2006);
Kazakhstan chaired the Third Review Conference of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (Vienna, 29 May-2 June 2006);
Tolerance Implementation Meeting on Promoting Inter-Cultural, Inter-Religious and Inter-Ethnic Understanding (Almaty, 12-13 June 2006);
Regional workshop on confidence-building measures and regional co-operation on demining (Almaty, 26-27 March 2007);
Seventeenth Annual Session of the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly (Astana, 29 June-3 July 2008).


                         Statement by Mr. Kanat Saudabayev,                                                       Chairman-in-office of the OSCE

Statement by mr. Kanat Saudabayev, Chairman-in-office of the OSCE and Secretary of state and Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan, at the 789th meeting of the OSCE permanent council


Your Excellencies,

Ladies and gentlemen,

Speaking here before the Permanent Council two and a half years ago, I expressed the hope that on 30 November 2007 the foreign ministers of the OSCE participating States would adopt a fair decision in Madrid on Kazakhstan’s Chairmanship of the Organization in 2010. Thank God that is what happened. As a result of that decision, I now have the honour today to address you, my distinguished colleagues, as the Chairman in Office of the OSCE.

The decision adopted in Madrid was not only a sign of the objective recognition by the international community of the impressive achievements of Kazakhstan and President Nursultan Nazarbayev in building an economically powerful and dynamically developing democratic State, its worthy contribution in ensuring regional and global security during the short period that the country has been independent, but also served to demonstrate the desire of the OSCE itself to really bring the countries to the east and the west of Vienna closer together and to modernize and strengthen the Organization in order to adapt it to the present day realities. In the address that we have just heard, President Nazarbayev outlined the main challenges facing our Organization today along with ways of finding appropriate responses to them and the most important priorities of our OSCE Chairmanship. For my part, I should merely like to outline a road map for the implementation of our Head of State’s strategic vision.

We are extremely grateful to Greece for its effective Chairmanship and we intend to continue its positive trends, first and foremost development of the Corfu Process.

In the context of the dialogue on the future of European security we support the willingness expressed by a number of countries in Athens to discuss the different ideas on strengthening the indivisible security from Vancouver to Vladivostok, including the Russian Federation’s initiative on a Treaty on European Security.

We share the opinion that the strengthening the Vienna Document 1999 should be carried out in parallel and without detriment to the existing regime of confidence and security building measures (CSBMs). It is our hope that 2010, a special year in many respects, will see us draw a step closer to the entry into force of the Agreement on Adaptation of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe.

Kazakhstan will give particular attention to the preparations for the Annual Security Review Conference (ASRC) and will look into the possibility of making its meetings more representative, productive and result-oriented.

We shall continue to work to strengthen the OSCE’s co operation with other international organizations and institutions and will intend to invite their representatives more frequently for an exchange of views.

Assisting in resolution of “protracted conflicts” remains a priority for any Chairmanship and we shall endeavour to do all we can to make a contribution to this difficult process. At the same time, our Organization must try to find a way of preventing the emergence of similar conflicts which result in human tragedy and humanitarian disasters.

To that end, my first visit as Chairman in Office is scheduled for mid February to the countries of the South Caucasus. I would be grateful for any recommendations you might have and for your help and ideas in resolving the problems concerned with the conflicts there.

In line with the Ministerial Declaration adopted in Athens on non proliferation, Kazakhstan will, as a recognized leader in the worldwide process of non proliferation, try to increase the OSCE’s contribution to achieving the goals of UN Security Council Resolution 1540 and supporting the global efforts in the area of nuclear disarmament.

We shall pay greater attention to the work to combat illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs and to counter terrorism and other new challenges of the modern age, and welcome the decision taken in this regard at Athens.

In view of the experience of previous Chairmanships, Kazakhstan intends to co operate closely with the Secretariat’s Action against Terrorism Unit, to support specific projects as a donor and assist in the holding of thematic seminars. We are planning to hold a conference in Astana on the prevention of terrorism as the main event in this area. We urge our partners to ensure a high level of participation in this Conference.

Today the concept of European security goes far beyond the borders of the European continent and encompasses the vast expanse of Eurasia. Accordingly, we intend to focus particular attention on Afghanistan.

We view the development of the situation in that country from the point of view of global security and the fight against terrorism, religious extremism and drug trafficking. Helping the Afghan people to transform their war-torn country into a peaceful, productive and self-sustained society based on democratic principles and values, is an important task for the OSCE and the whole international community.

We hope that the forthcoming international conference on Afghanistan in London at the end of January, which I plan to attend as Chairman in Office of the OSCE, will be an important step in that direction.
For a number of years Kazakhstan has been providing considerable humanitarian aid to Afghanistan. Following an agreement signed with the Afghan Government, this year will see the start of a programme to provide vocational training for a thousand Afghan citizens at our universities. Astana has allocated 50 million US dollars for that purpose. Furthermore, it is our intention to play an active part in implementing and co sponsoring projects to strengthen Afghanistan’s borders with Central Asian countries, to develop cross-border co operation and to enhance law enforcement activities.

In selecting its priorities in the economic and environmental dimension, Kazakhstan proposed the promotion of good governance at border crossings and development of secure and efficient land transportation. We thank all participating States for their support in the selection of the theme of the 18th Economic and Environmental Forum, which we believe is very important as we emerge from the global crisis.

The III Astana Economic Forum in July of this year on the theme of “Crisis Lessons and Post Crisis Model of Economic Development in Globalization Conditions” should impart an additional impetus to discussions in this area.

Another important and highly topical sphere of work in the second dimension is environment and security. It is important over the long term to create a comprehensive system for monitoring and responding to environmental threats, devising common approaches and generating political will. In this context, activities to address challenges of the Aral Sea region may serve as a model for resolving environmental problems within our Organization’s area of responsibility.

Work must continue on migration issues and on ensuring energy security in line with the decisions adopted at the Ministerial Council meeting in Athens.

The human dimension remains a key theme on the agenda of our Organization and our Chairmanship. Kazakhstan will continue to support the work of the Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR), the High Commissioner on National Minorities and the Representative on Freedom of the Media.

Given our extremely positive experience in securing inter ethnic and interconfessional harmony in our own country, we intend to make tolerance and intercultural dialogue within the OSCE area a major priority of our Chairmanship.

I hope that the High Level OSCE Conference on Tolerance and Non Discrimination to be held in Astana on 29 and 30 June of this year will make a worthy contribution to the process of further strengthening interaction among different cultures and civilizations and the practical implementation of decisions adopted earlier. In that connection, I would ask you all, my distinguished colleagues, to play a most active part in the preparatory and substantive work of the Conference. The three Personal Representatives of the Chairman in Office for religious tolerance and non discrimination will also be actively involved in this process.

Another no less acute problem is trafficking in human beings, with particular focus on trafficking in children, which has taken on a global scale and become a component of transnational crime. This being the case, one of the supplementary human dimension meetings will be devoted to a discussion of how to improve the mechanisms for combating trafficking in human beings.

In view of the importance of promoting gender policy, we plan to hold a meeting on the promotion of gender balance and the participation of women in public and political life and to co sponsor an ODIHR programme to increase the participation by women in State structures.

The rule of law is a fundamental commitment in the human dimension, directly concerned with human rights and democracy. In this context, we intend to pay particular attention to independence of judicial systems and to other important issues that have lost none of their relevance such as the prevention of hate crimes, freedom of movement, the situation of Roma and Sinti and others.

In addition to the annual Human Dimension Implementation Meeting held in Warsaw, a conference to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the Copenhagen Document will be of great importance. We are providing both organizational and financial support for that event. The conference will include a review of the implementation of commitments regarding fundamental human rights and freedoms, the rights of national minorities and elections. I should like to express our gratitude to Denmark and the ODIHR for their help and support in preparing for this event.
This year, presidential and parliamentary elections will be held in 15 OSCE participating States. We urge the ODIHR and the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly to co ordinate their work and to do everything possible to ensure that the election monitoring process is objective and constructive.
Attaching great importance to the human dimension of the OSCE’s work, we are demonstrating a firm commitment to this process, first and foremost in our own country. Further steps in the area of democratization in Kazakhstan will be fully in line with the goals and tasks that we have set ourselves during our Chairmanship.

Distinguished colleagues,

For Kazakhstan, everything I have outlined so far represents a seamless and responsible continuation of the efforts of our predecessors in the post of Chairman in Office of the OSCE in resolving the problems currently facing our Organization as well as problems that may re emerge. As President Nazarbayev has already stressed, a most important task for the Organization today is to prepare for and hold an OSCE summit in 2010. A specific recommendation regarding a summit was set out in documents adopted at the Ministerial Council meeting in Athens. This will allow the participating States you represent here to begin work without delay on giving substance to a summit agenda and providing organizational support for its preparation. In this connection, I should like to urge you all – distinguished colleagues, the Secretary General and the OSCE Secretariat – to actively and purposefully begin the process of reaching agreement among all our partners on a substantive agenda for a summit and a time frame that is acceptable to all and based on consensus.
We understand that this is an extremely difficult task. However, as the great Francis Bacon once said “all rising to a great place is by a winding stair”.
Kazakhstan also intends to continue the fine tradition initiated by our predecessors Greece by inviting the foreign ministers of the OSCE participating States to an informal meeting in Almaty this summer. Here in the Alatau mountains rising 3000 metres above sea level and among the flowering alpine meadows we could in the spirit of Corfu continue the open and free exchange of views on the most pressing problems in the OSCE’s area of responsibility and ideally reach a consensus on an agenda and time frame for the summit. I would ask all of you to take an understanding and enthusiastic approach to the preparations for this important event.

Ladies and gentlemen,

I should like to thank our Greek friends for their tireless efforts throughout 2009. As the Chairman in Office of the OSCE I am counting on close co operation with Greece and Lithuania in the Troika in 2010.
I am also relying on the support of all my appointed personal and special representatives. The broad geography of the countries represented by them should ensure the objectivity and impartiality of the work ahead of us.
I regard the support of the Secretary General and the OSCE Secretariat and institutions as a major factor for the success of our Chairmanship and for ensuring the continuity and effectiveness of the Organization’s work. In this connection, we shall continue to examine different ways of strengthening the legal status of the OSCE, including the possibility of setting up a working group to draw up proposals on the basis of consensus.

The Kazakh Chairmanship attaches great importance to the work of the OSCE missions in the field. We firmly believe that at the request of the host authorities the OSCE field operations can provide vital support.
We intend to pay particular attention to strengthening the parliamentary dimension. Kazakhstan is pleased to note the atmosphere of co operation and mutual understanding that exists between us and the President of the Parliamentary Assembly Mr. João Soares and its leadership as a whole. An OSCE Trans Asian Parliamentary Forum is to be held in Almaty on 13 and 14 May of this year. Its agenda reflects our intention to pay greater attention in our work to the Asian dimension of the OSCE and to co sponsor specific events in this area.
This summer Turkey will host the third summit meeting of the Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia (CICA). The Asian partners of the OSCE – all members of the CICA or having observer status – as well as the OSCE Troika, the Secretary General and the President of the Parliamentary Assembly, have been invited to take part in that event, making it possible to intensify co operation between the OSCE and the CICA with a view to strengthening security in the vast Eurasian region.

Your Excellencies,

Ladies and gentlemen,

Year after year it has been said unfortunately that the delay in the adoption of the budget has become a customary practice, which has a negative effect on both the activities and the authority of the OSCE. Today, however, I should like to thank all the participating States for the constructive approach taken to the discussions on the 2010 budget, which for the first time in recent years was adopted within the prescribed time frame. I hope that this is a good sign for the start of our Chairmanship. May this positive outlook continue to apply to all our joint co ordinated work throughout 2010.
In keeping with the priorities of our Chairmanship, Kazakhstan intends to allocate 1 million euros for the financing of extrabudgetary projects in all three OSCE dimensions.
In conclusion I should like to say that during the 35 years since the adoption of the Helsinki Final Act, the OSCE has gained unique experience and devised an unparalleled system of collective, comprehensive and indivisible security.
However, as our President noted in his address, today the OSCE’s positive and historic resources have their limits. For that reason, in view of the new threats and challenges our common task is to make the Organization even more valid, useful and effective.
In keeping with this lofty goal and firmly committed to the fundamental principles and values of the OSCE, in its work in chairing this Organization Kazakhstan will be guided by the interests of all the OSCE participating States for the sake of the security and prosperity of their peoples.

Thank you for your attention.

14 January 2010, 5:00